|Region||Ilocos Region (Region I)|
|- Total||109.10 km2 (42.1 sq mi)|
|- Density||128.9/km2 (333.8/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Income class||4th class|
Santa is nestled in the central part of the Ilocos strip. Bounded by natural borders, this municipality presents a gorgeous poetic setting; the denuded Ilocos Range in the east, the winding Abra River in the north and immense China Sea down west. The river, the mountain and the sea contribute to its beauty which made then Governor General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. in his visit in 1925 say, “The mountain in the east the winding, roping river in the north and the immense sea in the west make Santa a poetic town.”
Santa is 386 kilometers north of Manila and 21 kilometers south of Vigan, the capital town of the province. It can be reached by bus, jeepney and other motorized means of transport by way of the National Highway.
Physically, Santa is triangular shape. Its north border, forming the baseline of the triangular land and running in the east-west direction, follow the ever changing course of the Abra River from Banaoang Gap in the northeast corner of the town to the sea about 18 kilometers.
Santa has an area of 4,877.99 hectares, which is distributed in twenty-six (26) barangays and constitutes almost 1.895 of the entire area of the province of Ilocos Sur.
The topography of the municipality is undulating to rolling with slope ranging from 0-30%.
There are three types of soil in Santa, namely: clay loam which is used for crop production, clay on the eastern part of the town and sandy loam on the western part.
Santa has a fair type of soil, vegetative cover is good for peanuts, onion, watermelon, palay, corn, vegetables and fruit bearing trees.
Major mineral resources of the municipality are gravel and sand and salt. Gravel and sand are found along the river bank of Abra River. Salt making is available along the coastal barangays of Santa because some of the residents are engaged in salt making as their means of livelihood.
The type of climate in Santa is generally the same as the climate of all coastal towns of Ilocos Sur. There are two seasons in the municipality, wet and dry: dry season commence on the month of February and ended on the months of June while the wet season is during the rest of the year.
PAG-ASA’s data in temperature in the municipality was recorded 29 degrees Celsius, for the average annual temperature. April and May were recorded as the hottest months with a temperature from 29 degrees Celsius to 31 Degrees Celsius respectively while the coldest months are January and February with a temperature of 24 down to 21 degrees Celsius.
Rainfall and Typhoon Frequencies
Rainfall record of Santa is the same as the records of other municipalities in Ilocos Sur. During the rainy season, Santa experiences more or less twenty typhoons a year.
Natural & Man-made Risk Areas
Flood prone areas are found at the western part of the town, which include Barangays Pasungol, Tabucolan, Calungboyan, Casiber, Rancho, Oribi and Dammay. Places located at the foot of the mountain and places beside the river banks are prone to flash floods.